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Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology
Buch
Buch
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Fachbuch
2002

Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology

Prospects for Phytomonitoring and Phytoremediation

ISBN
EAN
978-4-431-70216-0
9784431702160
Artikel-Nr.
QZK62N4
Kostenloser Versand
Rabatt
-12.3
%
CHF 179.00
CHF
157.04
Anzahl
1
Maximale
Lieferzeit
20
Arbeitstage
Dienstag
24.08.2021
speech-bubble-svg Beschreibung
Air pollution is ubiquitous in industrialized societies, causing a host of environmental problems. It is thus essential to monitor and reduce pollution levels. A number of plant species already are being exploited as detectors (for phytomonitoring) and as scavengers (for phytoremediation) of air pollutants. With advances in biotechnology, it is now feasible to modify plants for a wider range of phytomonitoring and phytoremediation applications. Air Pollution and Plant Biotechnology presents recent results in this field, including plant responses during phytomonitoring, pollution-resistant plant species, imaging diagnosis of plant responses, and the use of novel transgenic plants, along with reviews of basic plant physiology and biochemistry where appropriate. Researchers and students working in plant biotechnology and the environmental sciences or considering new areas of investigation will find this volume a valuable reference.
Inhaltsverzeichnis
I. Plant Responses and Phytomonitoring.- 1. Responses of Whole Plants to Air Pollutants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Sulfur Oxides.- 3. Ozone.- 4. Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN).- 5. Nitrogen Oxides.- 6. Fluoride.- 7. Acid Rain.- 8. Combination of Air Pollutants.- 2. Plants as Bioindicators of Air Pollutants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Bioindicators for Sulfur Dioxide.- 3. Bioindicators for Hydrogen Fluoride.- 4. Bioindicators for Ethene (Ethylene).- 5. Bioindicators for Ozone.- 6. Bioindicators for Peroxyacetyl Nitrate (PAN).- 7. Conclusion.- 3. Phytomonitoring for Urban Environmental Management.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Scope of Project.- 3. Methodology: Ecoepidemiological.- 4. Findings: Ecoepidemiological.- 5. Field Experiment.- 6. Implications for Environmental Management.- 4. Effects of Air Pollutants on Lipid Metabolism in Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Leaf Glycerolipids and Their Metabolism.- 3. Lipid Oxidation by Air Pollutants.- 4. Metabolic Alteration of Lipids by Air Pollutants.- 5. Conclusions and Prospects for Biotechnology.- 5. Effects of Ethylene on Plant Responses to Air Pollutants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Ozone-Induced Ethylene Synthesis.- 3. Effects of Ethylene Under Acute Ozone Exposure.- 4. Effects of Ethylene Under Chronic Ozone Exposure.- 5. Sulfur Dioxide-Induced Ethylene Production.- 6. Conclusion.- 6. Effects of Air Pollutants on Gene Expression in Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Effects of Air Pollutants on Gene Expression.- 3. Biological Significance of Gene Expression in Response to Air Pollutants.- 4. Application of the Detection of Gene Expression to Environmental Biotechnology.- 5. Conclusions.- 7. Biotechnology for Phytomonitoring.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Use of Biotechnology to Generate Plants with Altered Sensitivity to Air Pollutants.- 3. Molecular Sensors of Air Pollutants.- 4. Conclusions.- II. Resistant Plants and Phytoremediation.- 8. Absorption of Organic and Inorganic Air Pollutants by Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. A Simple Gas Diffusion Model for Analyzing Gas Absorption by Plant Leaves.- 3. Analysis of Foliar Absorption of Pollutant Gases by the Gas Diffusion Model.- 4. Stomatal Control of Gas Absorption and Susceptibility of Plants to Air Pollutants.- 5. Conclusion.- 9. Uptake, Metabolism, and Detoxification of Sulfur Dioxide.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Absorption of Sulfur Dioxide.- 3. Phytotoxicity of Sulfur Dioxide.- 4. Metabolism of Sulfur Dioxide.- 5. Conclusion.- 10. Elevated Levels of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Plant Environment: Nutrient or Toxin.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Elevated H2S and Plant Growth.- 3. Uptake and Metabolism of H2S.- 4. Atmospheric H2S, Sulfur Nutrition, and Sulfur Assimilation.- 5. H2S Metabolism Versus Toxicity.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- 11. Metabolism and Detoxification of Nitrogen Dioxide and Ammonia in Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Absorption and Metabolism of NO2.- 3. Toxicity and Detoxification of NO2.- 5. Conclusions and Perspectives.- 12. Plant Resistance to Ozone: the Role of Ascorbate.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Genetic Basis of Ozone Resistance.- 3. Factors Governing Ozone Resistance.- 4. Conclusions.- 13. Detoxification of Active Oxygen Species and Tolerance in Plants Exposed to Air Pollutants and CO2.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Response of Antioxidative Systems to Ozone.- 3. Response of Antioxidative Systems and Tolerance to SO2.- 4. Response of Antioxidative Systems to CO2.- 14. Countermeasures with Fertilization to Reduce Oxidant-Induced Injury to Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Effects of Nutritional Components on Ozone-Induced Visible Injury.- 3. Countermeasures for Reducing Damage Caused by Oxidants to Spinach: Methods for Fertilizer Application.- III. Image Diagnosis of Plant Response and Gas Exchange.- 15. Image Instrumentation of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence for Diagnosing Photosynthetic Injury.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Chlorophyll a Fluorescence.- 3. Image Instrumentation System.- 4. Diagnosis of Environmental Stresses.- 5. Conclusions.- 16. Field-Portable Imaging System for Measurement of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Quenching.- 1. Introduction.- 2. A Prototype (Almost) Portable System.- 3. Some Applications and Results.- 4. Further Developments.- 17. Assessment of Environmental Plant Stresses Using Multispectral Steady-State Fluorescence Imagery.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Steady-State Fluorescence Characteristics of Vegetation.- 3. Multispectral Steady-State Fluorescence Techniques.- 4. Effects of Moderately Elevated O3 and CO2.- 5. Effects of Varying Content of Flavonols.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- 18. Diagnosis of Stomatal Response and Gas Exchange of Trees by Thermal Remote Sensing.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Information Obtained from Leaf Temperature.- 3. Image Instrumentation of Leaf Temperature.- 4. Diagnosis of Trees by Leaf Temperature Image.- 5. Conclusion.- IV. Generation of Transgenic Plants.- 19. Manipulation of Genes Involved in Sulfur and Glutathione Metabolism.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Molecular Regulation of Sulfur Assimilation and Glutathione Biosynthesis.- 3. Manipulation of Genes and Production of Transgenic Plants.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- 20. Manipulation of Genes for Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Genetic Manipulation of NR Genes.- 3. Genetic Manipulation of NiR Genes.- 4. Genetic Manipulation of GS Genes.- 5. Nitrogen Dioxide Assimilation in Transgenic Plants Containing Chimeric NiR cDNA, and GS1 and GS2 cDNA.- 21. Manipulation of Genes for Antioxidative Enzymes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Manipulation of Genes for Superoxide Dismutases.- 3. Manipulation of Genes for Glutathione Reductase.- 5. Manipulation of Genes for Other Antioxidative Enzymes.- 5. Manipulation of more than One Gene Encoding Antioxidative Enzymes.- 6. Conclusions and Perspectives.- 22. Application of Genetic Engineering for Forest Tree Species.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Genetic Improvement of Forest Tree Species.- 3. Transformation Studies in Forest Tree Species.- 4. Transformation Research of Populus Species as a Model System for Forest Tree Species.- 5. Improving Stress Tolerance in Hybrid Aspen by Genetic Engineering.- 6. Prospects of Improving Traits of Forest Tree Species Through Genetic Engineering.- 23. Environmental Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants: A Case Study of Cucumber Mosaic Virus-Resistant Melon in Japan.- 1. Introduction to the Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms.- 2. Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Crops in Japan.- 3. Environmental Risk Assessment of Cucumber Mosaic Virus-Resistant Transgenic Melon.- 4. Conclusion.
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Zielgruppe
Research
Publikation
Japan
01.03.2002
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Sprache
Englisch
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Hardcover
455 Seiten
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