Brain Immune System Signal Molecules in Protection from Aerobic and Anaerobic Infections
Advances in Neurobiology
Proline-rich polypeptides - in particular (PRP-1) galarmin and its structural analogues – are, when isolated from the neurosecretory granules of neurohypophysis of humans and animals, a new type of hypothalamic peptides. They work against aerobic, anaerobic, gram-positive, and gram-negative microorganisms in vivo, and do not have etiotropic properties. They are unique and capable substitutes to antibiotics, and, moreover, may be effective against strains, such as MRSA, that develop resistance to antibiotics. Galarmin, a component of the brain neuroendocrine system produced by the neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus, possesses immunomodulative, neuroprotective, antioxidant, antitumorigenic and hematopoietic properties. Moreover, galarmin and its structural analogues are powerful anti-inflammatory compounds.
In addition to presenting a full overview of the neuroimmune system, it emphasizes the antibacterial, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties of proline-rich polypeptides. It investigates the mechanism of galarmin’s action during different infectious processes, where it targets such dangerous pathogens as Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium perfringens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Methycillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This research is important from both a theoretical and a clinical point of view, creating new prospects for the modern pharmaceutical industry and neuroendocrine, neuroimmunological sciences.
Dr. Galoyan is a pioneer of the specialized field of neuroimmunology. During his 45-year long career, he has discovered a neuroendocrine immune system of the brain and identified a new type of brain cytokines: proline-rich polypeptides. The most important of these, PRP-1 (galarmin) has been shown to possess antibacterial properties and protect from certain neurotoxins.
The Cytokine System.- The Discovery of the Brain Immunomodulalors.- Brain Neuroendocrine Immune System: Neurosecretion of Interleukins and New Cytokines by NSO and NPV of Hypothalamus.- Antibacterial and Antiviral Activity of Galarmin (PRP-1) and Some Immunological Mechanisms of its Action.- Treatment and Prophylaxis of Anthrax by Galarmin: Receptor Tyrosine Kinase is a Target of Galarmin.- Prophylaxis and Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (Mrsa) Infection by Galarmin and D-15 Galarmin in Vivo.- Treatment of Clostridium Perfringens-Induced Gas Gangrene by New Cytokines of Brain.- Investigation of Protective and Immunogenic Properties of Hypothalamic Proline Polypeptides Galarmin and Gx-NH2 Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.- Brain - Bone Marrow Neurohumoral Axis: Galarmin Controls Differentiation, Proliferation and Mobilization of Bone-Marrow Progenitor Cells.- Antioxidant-Antiradical and Electron Donating Functions of Galarmin and Gx-NH2.- Discussion.- Summary. Galarmin and Gx-NH2.- Discussion.- Summary.