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Ceramic Materials

Ceramic Materials

Science and Engineering

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Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering is an up-to-date treatment of ceramic science, engineering, and applications in a single, comprehensive text. Building on a foundation of crystal structures, phase equilibria, defects, and the mechanical properties of ceramic materials, students are shown how these materials are processed for a wide diversity of applications in today's society. Concepts such as how and why ions move, how ceramics interact with light and magnetic fields, and how they respond to temperature changes are discussed in the context of their applications. References to the art and history of ceramics are included throughout the text, and a chapter is devoted to ceramics as gemstones. 

This course-tested text now includes expanded chapters on the role of ceramics in industry and their impact on the environment as well as a chapter devoted to applications of ceramic materials in clean energy technologies. Also new are expanded sets of text-specific homework problems and other resources for instructors. The revised and updated Second Edition is further enhanced with color illustrations throughout the text.

Preface to the First EditionPreface to the Second EditionForewordPART I: History and IntroductionChapter 1: Introduction1.1 Definitions1.2 General Properties1.3 Types of Ceramic and their Applications1.4 Market1.5 Critical Issues for the Future1.6 Relating Microstructure, Processing and Applications1.7 Safety1.8 Ceramics on the Internet1.9 On UnitsChapter 2: Some History2.1 Earliest Ceramics: the Stone Age2.2 Ceramics in Ancient Civilizations2.3 Clay2.4 Types of Pottery2.5 Glazes2.6 Development of a Ceramics Industry2.7 Plaster and Cement2.8 Brief History of Glass2.9 Brief History of Refractories2.10 Major Landmarks of the 20th Century2.11 Museums2.12 Societies2.13 Ceramic EducationPART II: MaterialsChapter 3: Background You Need to Know3.1 The Atom3.2 Energy Levels3.3 Electron Waves3.4 Quantum Numbers3.5 Assigning Quantum Numbers3.6 Ions3.7 Electronegativity3.8 Thermodynamics: the Driving Force for Change3.9 Kinetics: the Speed of ChangeChapter 4: Bonds and Energy Bands4.1 Types of Interatomic Bond4.2 Young’s Modulus4.3 Ionic Bonding4.4 Covalent Bonding4.5 Metallic Bonding in Ceramics4.6 Mixed Bonding4.7 Secondary Bonding4.8 Electron Energy BandsChapter 5: Models, Crystals and Chemistry5.1 Terms and Definitions5.2 Symmetry and Crystallography5.3 Lattice Points, Directions and Planes5.4 The Importance of Crystallography5.5 Pauling’s Rules5.6 Close-Packed Arrangements: Interstitial Sites5.7 Notation for Crystal Structures5.8 Structure, Composition and Temperature5.9 Crystals, Glass, Solids and Liquid5.10 Defects5.11 Computer ModelingChapter 6: Binary Compounds6.1 Background6.2 CsCl6.3 NaCl (MgO, TiC, PbS) 6.4 GaAs (β-SiC) 6.5 AlN (BeO, ZnO) 6.6 CaF26.7 FeS26.8 Cu2O6.9 CuO6.10 TiO26.11 Al2O36.12 MoS2 and CdI26.13 Polymorphs, Polytypes and PolytypoidsChapter 7: Complex Crystal and Glass Structures7.1 Introduction7.2 Spinel7.3 Perovskite7.4 The Silicates and Structures Based on SiO47.5 Silica7.6 Olivine7.7 Garnets7.8 Ring Silicates7.9 Micas and Other Layer Materials7.10 Clay Minerals7.11 Pyroxene7.12 β-Aluminas and Related Materials7.13 Calcium Aluminate and Related Materials7.14 Mullite7.15 Monazite7.16 YBa2Cu3O7 and Related HTSCs7.17 Si3N4, SiAlONs and Related Materials7.18 Fullerenes and Nanotubes7.19 Zeolites and Microporous Compounds7.20 Zachariasen’s Rules for the Structure of Glass7.21 Revisiting Glass StructuresChapter 8: Equilibrium Phase Diagrams8.1 What’s Special About Ceramics? 8.2 Determining Phase Diagrams8.3 Phase Diagrams for Ceramists: The Books8.4 Gibbs Phase Rule8.5 One Component (C = 1) 8.6 Two Components (C = 2) 8.7 Three and More Components8.8 Composition with Variable Oxygen Partial Pressure8.9 Ternary Diagrams and Temperature8.10 Congruent and Incongruent Melting8.11 Miscibility Gaps in GlassPART III: ToolsChapter 9: Furnaces9.1 The Need for High Temperatures9.2 Types of Furnace9.3 Combustion Furnaces9.4 Electrically Heated Furnaces9.5 Batch or Continuous Operation9.6 Indirect Heating9.7 Heating Elements9.8 Refractories9.9 Furniture, Tubes and Crucibles9.10 Firing Process9.11 Heat Transfer9.12 Measuring Temperature9.13 SafetyChapter 10: Characterizing Structure, Defects and Chemistry10.1 Characterizing Ceramics10.2 Imaging using Visible-Light, IR and UV10.3 Imaging using X-rays and CT scans10.4 Imaging in the SEM10.5 Imaging in the TEM10.6 Scanning-Probe Microscopy10.7 Scattering and Diffraction Techniques10.8. Photon Scattering10.9 Raman and IR Spectroscopy10.10 NMR Spectroscopy and Spectrometry10.11 Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Spectrometry10.12 Diffraction in the EM10.13 Ion Scattering (RBS) 10.14 X-ray Diffraction and Databases10.15 Neutron Scattering10.16 Mass Spectrometry10.17 Spectrometry in the EM10.18 Electron Spectroscopy10.19 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) 10.20 Thermal AnalysisPART IV: DefectsChapter 11: Point Defects, Charge and Diffusion11.1 Are Defects in Ceramics Different? 11.2 Types of Point Defects11.3 What is Special for Ceramics? 11.4 What Type of Defects Form? 11.5 Equilibrium Defect Concentrations11.6 Writing Equations for Point Defects11.7 Solid Solutions11.8 Association of Point Defects11.9 Color Centers11.10 Creation of Point Defects in Ceramics11.11 Experimental Studies of Point Defects11.12 Diffusion11.13 Diffusion in Impure, or Doped, Ceramics11.14 Movement of defects11.15 Diffusion and Ionic Conductivity11.16 ComputingChapter 12: Are Dislocations Unimportant?12.1 A Quick Review of Dislocations12.2 Summary of Dislocation Properties12.3 Observation of Dislocations12.4 Dislocations in Ceramics12.5 Structure of the Core12.6 Detailed Geometry12.7 Defects on Dislocations12.8 Dislocations and Diffusion12.9 Movement of Dislocations12.10 Multiplication of Dislocations12.11 Dislocation Interactions12.12 At the Surface12.13 Indentation, Scratching and Cracks12.14 Dislocations with Different CoresChapter 13: Surfaces, Nanoparticles and Foams13.1 Background to surfaces13.2 Ceramic Surfaces13.3 Surface Energy13.4 Surface structure13.5 Curved Surfaces and Pressure13.6 Capillarity13.7 Wetting and Dewetting13.8 Foams13.9 Epitaxy and Film Growth13.10 Film Growth in 2D: Nucleation13.11 Film Growth in 2D: Mechanisms13.12 Characterizing Surfaces13.13 Steps13.14 In situ13.15 Surfaces and Nano13.16 Computer modeling13.17 Introduction to propertiesChapter 14: Interfaces in Polycrystals14.1 What are Grain Boundaries? 14.2 For Ceramics14.3 GB Energy14.4 Low-angle GBs14.5 High-angle GBs14.6 Twin Boundaries14.7 General Boundaries14.8 GB Films14.9 Triple Junctions and GB Grooves14.10 Characterizing GBs14.11 GBs in Thin Films14.12 Space Charge and Charged Boundaries14.13 Modeling14.14 Some PropertiesChapter 15: Phase Boundaries, Particles and Pores15.1 The importance15.2 Different types15.3 Compare to other materials15.4 Energy15.5 The structure of PBs15.6 Particles15.7 Use of particles15.8 Nucleation and growth of particles15.9 Pores15.10 Measuring porosity15.11 Porous ceramics15.12 Glass/crystal phase boundaries15.13 Eutectics15.14 Metal/ceramic PBs15.15 Forming PBs by joiningPART V: Mechanical Strength and WeaknessChapter 16: Mechanical Testing16.1 Philosophy16.2 Types of testing16.3 Elastic Constants and Other ‘Constants’16.4. Effect of Microstructure on Elastic Moduli16.5. Test Temperature16.6. Test Environment16.7 Testing in Compression and Tension16.8 Three- and Four-point Bending16.9 KIc from Bend Test16.10 Indentation16.11 Fracture Toughness From Indentation16.12 Nanoindentation16.13 Ultrasonic Testing16.14 Design and Statistics16.15 SPT DiagramsChapter 17: Plasticity17.1 Plastic Deformation17.2 Dislocation Glide17.3 Slip in Alumina17.4 Plastic Deformation in single crystals17.5 Plastic Deformation in Polycrystals17.6 Dislocation Velocity and Pinning17.7 Creep17.8 Dislocation Creep17.9 Diffusion-Controlled Creep17.10 Grain-Boundary Sliding17.11 Tertiary Creep and Cavitation17.12 Creep Deformation Maps17.13 Viscous Flow17.14 SuperplasticityChapter 18: Fracturing: Brittleness18.1 The importance of brittleness18.2 Theoretical Strength—The Orowan Equation18.3 The Effect of Flaws—the Griffith Equation18.4 The Crack Tip—The Inglis Equation18.5 Stress Intensity Factor18.6 R Curves18.7 Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking18.8 Failure and Fractography18.9 Toughening and Ceramic Matrix Composites18.10 Machinable Glass-Ceramics18.11 Wear18.12 Grinding and polishingPART VI: ProcessingChapter 19: Raw Materials19.1 Geology, Minerals, and Ores19.2 Mineral Formation19.3 Beneficiation19.4 Weights and Measures19.5 Silica19.6 Silicates19.7 Oxides19.8 Non OxidesChapter 20: Powders, Fibers, Platelets and Composites20.1 Making Powders20.2. Types of powders20.3 Mechanical Milling20.4 Spray Drying20.5 Powders by Sol-gel Processing20.6 Powders by Precipitation20.7 Chemical Routes to Non-oxide powders20.8 Platelets20.9 Nanopowders by Vapor-Phase reactions20.10 Characterizing Powders20.11 Characterizing Powders by Microscopy20.12 Sieving20.13 Sedimentation20.14 The Coulter counter20.15 Characterizing Powders by Light Scattering20.16 Characterizing Powders by X-Ray Diffraction20.17 Measuring Surface Area (The BET method) 20.18 Determining Particle composition and purity20.19 Making Fibers and whiskers20.20 Oxide fibers20.21 Whiskers20.22 Glass fibers20.23 Coating Fibers20.24 Making CMCs20.25 CMCs From Powders and slurries20.26 CMCs By Infiltration20.27 In-situ processesChapter 21: Glass and Glass-Ceramics21.1 Definitions21.2 History21.3 Viscosity, η21.4 Glass—A Summary of its Properties, or not21.5 Defects in Glass21.6 Heterogeneous Glass21.7 YA glass21.8 Coloring Glass21.9 Glass laser21.10 Precipitates in Glass21.11 Crystallizing Glass21.12 Glass as Glaze and Enamel21.13 Corrosion of Glass and Glaze21.14 Types of Ceramic Glasses21.15 Natural glass21.16 The Physics of GlassChapter 22: Sols, Gels and Organic Chemistry22.1 Sol-gel processing22.2 Structure and synthesis of alkoxides22.3 Properties of alkoxides22.4 The sol-gel process using metal alkoxides22.5 Characterization of the sol-gel Process22.6 Powders, coatings, fibers, crystalline or glass? Chapter 23: Shaping and Forming23.1 The Words23.2 Binders and Plasticizers23.3 Slip and Slurry23.4 Dry Pressing23.5 Hot Pressing23.6 Cold Isostatic Pressing23.7 Hot Isostatic Pressing23.8 Slip Casting23.9 Extrusion23.10 Injection molding23.11 Rapid prototyping23.12 Green machining23.13 Binder burnout23.14 Final machining23.15 Making Porous Ceramics23.16 Shaping Pottery23.17 Shaping GlassChapter 24: Sintering and Grain Growth24.1 The sintering process24.2 The terminology of sintering24.3 Capillary forces and Surface Forces24.4 Sintering spheres and wires24.5 Grain growth24.6 Sintering and Diffusion24.7 LPS24.8 Hot pressing24.9 Pinning Grain Boundaries24.10 Grain Growth24.11 Grain boundaries, surfaces and sintering24.12 Exaggerated grain growth24.13 Fabricating complex shapes24.14 Pottery24.15 Pores and Porous Ceramics24.16 Sintering with 2- and 3-phases24.17 Examples of sintering in action24.18 Computer ModelingChapter 25: Solid-State Phase Transformations & Reactions25.1 Transformations & reactions: The link25.2 The Terminology25.3 Technology25.4 Phase transformations without changing chemistry25.5 Phase transformations changing chemistry25.6 Methods for studying kinetics25.7 Diffusion through a layer: slip casting25.8 Diffusion through a layer: solid-state reactions25.9 The spinel-forming reaction25.10 Inert markers and reaction barriers25.11 Simplified Darken equation25.12 The incubation period25.13 Particle growth and the effect of misfit25.14 Thin-film reactions25.15 Reactions in an electric field25.16 Phase transformations involving glass25.17 Pottery25.18 Cement25.19 Reactions involving a gas phase25.20 Curved interfacesChapter 26: Processing Glass and Glass-Ceramics26.1 The Market for Glass and Glass Products26.2 Processing Bulk Glasses26.3 Bubbles26.4 Flat Glass26.5 Float-Glass26.6 Glass Blowing26.7 Coating Glass26.8 Safety Glass26.9 Foam Glass26.10 Sealing glass26.11 Enamel26.12 Photochromic Glass26.13 Ceramming: Changing Glass to Glass-Ceramics26.14 Glass for Art and Sculpture26.15 Glass for Science and EngineeringChapter 27: Coatings and Thick Films27.3 Dip Coating27.4 Spin Coating27.5 Spraying27.6 Electrophoretic Deposition27.7 Thick Film CircuitsChapter 28: Thin Films and Vapor Deposition28. 1 The Difference Between Thin Films and Thick Films28.2 Acronyms, Adjectives and Hyphens28.3 Requirements for Thin Ceramic Films28.4 CVD28.5. Thermodynamics of CVD28.6 CVD of Ceramic Films for Semiconductor Devices28.7 Types of CVD28.8 CVD Safety28.9 Evaporation28.10 Sputtering28.11 Molecular-beam Epitaxy28.12 Pulsed-laser Deposition28.13 Ion-beam-assisted Deposition28.14 SubstratesChapter 29: Growing Single Crystals29.1 Why Single Crystals? 29.2 A Brief History of Growing Ceramic Single Crystals29.3 Methods for Growing Single Crystals of Ceramics29.4 Melt Technique: Verneuil (Flame-Fusion) 29.5 Melt Technique: Arc-image Growth29.6 Melt Technique: Czochralski29.7 Melt Technique: Skull Melting29.8 Melt Technique: Bridgman-Stockbarger29.9 Melt Technique: HEM29.10 Applying Phase Diagrams to Single-crystal Growth29.11 Solution Technique: Hydrothermal29.12 Solution Technique: Hydrothermal Growth at Low T29.13 Solution Technique: Flux Growth29.14 Solution Technique: Growing Diamonds29.15 Vapor Technique: VLS29.16 Vapor Technique: Sublimation29.17 Preparing Substrates for Thin-film Applications29.18 Growing Nanowires and Nanotubes by VLS and notPART VII: Properties and ApplicationsChapter 30: Conducting Charge or not30.1 Ceramics as electrical conductors30.2 Conduction mechanisms in ceramics30.3 Number of conduction electrons30.4 Electron mobility30.5 Effect of temperature30.6 Ceramics with metal-like conductivity30.7 Applications for high-s ceramics30.8 Semiconducting ceramics30.9 Examples of extrinsic semiconductors30.10 Varistors30.11 Thermistors30.12 Wide-band-gap semiconductors30.13 Ion conduction30.14 Fast ion conductors30.15 Batteries30.16 Fuel cells30.17 Ceramic insulators30.18 Substrates and packages for integrated circuits30.19 Insulating layers in integrated circuits30.20 Superconductivity30.21 Ceramic superconductorsChapter 31: Locally Redistributing Charge31.1 Background on Dielectrics31.2 Ferroelectricity31.3 BaTiO3 – The Prototypical Ferroelectric31.4 Solid Solutions with BaTiO331.5 Other Ferroelectric Ceramics31.6 Relaxor Dielectrics31.7 Ceramic Capacitors31.8 Ceramic Ferroelectrics for Memory Applications31.9 Piezoelectricity31.10 Lead Zirconate-Lead Titanate (PZT) Solid Solutions31.11 Applications for Piezoelectric Ceramics31.12 Piezoelectric Materials for MEMS31.13 Pyroelectricity31.14 Applications for Pyroelectric CeramicsChapter 32: Interacting with & Generating Light32.1 Some background for optical ceramics32.2 Transparency32.3 The Refractive Index32.4 Reflection from Ceramic Surfaces32.5 Color in Ceramics32.6 Coloring Glass and Glazes32.7 Ceramic Pigments and Stains32.8 Translucent Ceramics32.9 Lamp Envelopes32.10 Fluorescence32.11 The Basics of Optical Fibers32.12 Phosphors and Emitters32.13 Solid-State Lasers32.14 Electro-Optic Ceramics for Optical Devices32.15 Reacting to Other Parts of the Spectrum32.16 Optical Ceramics in Nature32.17. Quantum Dots and Size EffectsChapter 33: Using Magnetic Fields & Storing Data33.1 A Brief History of Magnetic Ceramics33.2 Magnetic Dipoles33.3 The Basic Equations, the Words and the Units33.4 The Five Classes of Magnetic Material33.5 Diamagnetic Ceramics33.6. Superconducting Magnets33.7. Paramagnetic Ceramics33.8 Measuring χ33.9 Ferromagnetism33.10 Antiferromagnetism and CMR33.11 Ferrimagnetism33.12 Estimating the Magnetization of Ferrimagnets33.13 Magnetic Domains and Bloch Walls33.14 Imaging Magnetic Domains33.15 Motion of Domain Walls and Hysteresis Loops33.16 Hard and Soft Ferrites33.17 Microwave Ferrites33.18 Data Storage and Recording33.19. Magnetic NanoparticlesChapter 34: Responding to Temperature Changes34.1 Summary of Terms and Units34.2 Absorption and Heat Capacity34.3. Melting34.4 Vaporization34.5. Thermal Conductivity34.6 Measuring Thermal Conductivity34.7 Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity34.8 Using High Thermal Conductivity34.9 Thermal Expansion34.10 Effect of Crystal Structure on α34.11 Thermal Expansion Measurement34.12 Importance of Matching αs34.13 Applications for Low-α34.14 Thermal ShockChapter 35: Ceramics in Biology & Medicine35.1 What are Bioceramics?35.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Ceramics35.3 Ceramic Implants & The Structure of Bone35.4 Alumina and Zirconia35.5 Bioactive Glasses35.6 Bioactive Glass-ceramics35.7 Hydroxyapatite35.8 Bioceramics in Composites35.9 Bioceramic Coatings35.10 Radiotherapy Glasses35.11 Pyrolytic Carbon Heart Valves35.12 Nanobioceramics35.13 Dental Ceramics35.14 BiomimeticsChapter 36: Minerals & Gems 36.1 Minerals36.2 What is a gem? 36.3 In the rough36.4 Cutting and polishing36.5 Light and Optics in Gemology36.6 Color in gems and minerals36.7 Optical Effects36.8 Identifying Minerals & Gems36.9 Chemical Stability (durability) 36.10 Diamonds, Sapphires, Rubies and Emeralds36.11 Opal36.12 Other Gems36.13 Minerals with Inclusions36.14 Treatment of Gems36.15 The Mineral & Gem Trade Chapter 37: Energy Production and Storage37.1 Some reminders37.2 Nuclear Fuel and Waste Disposal37.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells37.4 Photovoltaic Solar Cells37.5 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells37.6 Ceramics in Batteries37.7 Lithium-Ion Batteries37.8 Ultracapacitors37.9 Producing and Storing Hydrogen37.10 Energy Harvesting37.11 Catalysts and Catalyst SupportsChapter 38: Industry and the Environment38.1 The beginning of the modern ceramics industry38.2 Growth and globalization38.3 Types of market38.4 Case studies38.5 Emerging Areas38.6 Mining38.7 Recycling38.8 As Green MaterialsIndexDetails for Figures and Tables

Dr. Carter is the co-author of two textbooks (the other is Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science with David Williams), co-editor of six conference proceedings, and has published more than 290 refereed journal papers and more than 400 extended abstracts/conference proceedings papers. Since 1990 he has given more than 120 invited presentations at universities, conferences and research laboratories. Among numerous awards, he has received the Simon Guggenheim Award (1985-6), the Berndt Matthias Scholar Award (1997/8) and the Alexander von Humboldt Senior Award (1997). He organized the 16th International Symposium on the Reactivity of Solids (ISRS-16 in 2007). He was an Editor of the Journal of Microscopy (1995-1999) and of Microscopy and Microanalysis (2000-2004); he continues to serve on the Editorial Board of both journals.

M. Grant Norton is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University. From 2005 to 2011 he served as Associate Dean of Research and Graduate Programs in the College of Engineering and Architecture. Professor Norton obtained his PhDin Materials from Imperial College, London, in 1989,under the direction of Professor B.C.H. Steele and spent a two-year postdoctoral at Cornell University with Professor C. Barry Carter before joining the Washington State University faculty in 1991. In 2003 and 2004 he was an Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Faculty Research Associate at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio and spent the 1999/2000 academic year as a Visiting Professor in the Department of Materials at Oxford University. From 2000 to 2005 Professor Norton was Chair of Materials Science at Washington State University and from 2004 to 2007 he held the Herman and Brita Lindholm Endowed Chair in Materials Science. He is author or co-author of about 200 papers in the archival literature, several book chapters, and two textbooks. 


From the book reviews:

“I will definitely select this book as a textbook for a class on this subject. … The book includes general backgrounds materials, the basics of ceramic materials science and advanced applications of ceramic science and technology. Therefore, non-specialists (even non-science majors) including undergraduate, and graduate students as well as experts in the field can learn from various parts of in this book.” (Katsuhiko Ariga, Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, Vol. 24, 2014)

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