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Essential Radiology Review

Essential Radiology Review

A Question and Answer Guide

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The book is an on-the-spot reference for residents and medical students seeking diagnostic radiology fast facts. Its question-and-answer format makes it a perfect quick-reference for personal review and studying for board examinations and re-certification. Readers can read the text from cover to cover to gain a general foundation of knowledge that can be built upon through practice or can use choice chapters to review a specific subspecialty before starting a new rotation or joining a new service. With hundreds of high-yield questions and answer items, this resource addresses both general and subspecialty topics and provides accurate, on-the-spot answers. Sections are organized by subspecialty and body area, including chest, abdomen, and trauma, and chapters cover the anatomy, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, hallmark signs, and image features of major diseases and conditions. Key example images and illustrations enhance the text throughout and provide an ideal, pocket-sized resource for residents and medical students.

Introduction.- SECTION I: Imaging Modalities.- Radiography.- Computed Tomography.- Ultrasonography.- Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- Fluoroscopy.- Nuclear Medicine.- SECTION II: Chest.- Technical adequacy of chest radiograph.- The Normal Frontal Chest Radiograph.- Normal Pulmonary Vasculature.- The Normal Lateral Chest Radiograph.- Normal CT Anatomy of the Chest.- Normal CT Anatomy of the Lungs.- The Fissures.- Classifying Parenchymal Lung Disease.- Characteristics of Airspace Disease.- Some Causes of Airspace Disease.- Characteristics of Interstitial Lung Disease.- Some Causes of Interstitial Lung Disease.- Atelectasis of the Entire Lung.- Massive Pleural Effusion.- Pneumonia of an Entire Lung.- Post-pneumonectomy.- What is Atelectasis?.- Types of Atelectasis.- Patterns of Collapse in Lobar Atelectasis.- How Atelectasis Resolves.- Normal Anatomy and Physiology of the Pleural Space.- Modalities for Detecting Pleural Effusions.- Causes of Pleural Effusions.- Types of Pleural Effusions.- Side-Specificity of Pleural Effusions.- General Characteristics of Pneumonia.- Patterns of Pneumonia.- Lobar Pneumonia.- Segmental Pneumonia (Bronchopneumonia).- Interstitial Pneumonia.- Round Pneumonia.- Cavitary Pneumonia.- Aspiration.- Localizing Pneumonia.- How Pneumonia Resolves.- Pneumothorax.- Pneumomediastinum.- Pneumopericardium.- Subcutaneous Emphysema.- Endotracheal and Tracheostomy Tubes.- Intravascular Catheters.- Cardiac Devices—Pacemaker, AICD, IABP.- GI Tubes and Lines—Nasogastric Tubes, Feeding Tubes.- Esophagus.- Mediastinal Masses.- Anterior Mediastinum.- Middle Mediastinal Masses.- Posterior Mediastinal Masses.- Solitary Nodule/Mass in the Lung.- Bronchogenic Carcinoma.- Metastatic Neoplasms in the Lung.- Pulmonary Thromboembolic Disease.- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.- Blebs and Bullae, Cysts and Cavities.- Bronchiectasis.- Normal Cardiac CT Anatomy.- Uses of Cardiac CT.- Cardiac MRI.- Enlarged Cardiac Silhouette.- Pericardial Effusion.- Extra-cardiac Causes of Apparent Cardiac Enlargement.- Identifying Cardiac Enlargement on an AP Chest Radiograph.- Cardiomegaly on the Lateral Chest Radiograph.- Non-cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema—General Considerations.- Non-cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema—Imaging Findings.- Differentiating Cardiac from Non-cardiac Pulmonary Edema.- Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease.- Mitral Stenosis.- Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.- Aortic Stenosis.- Cardiomyopathy.- Aortic Aneurysms—General Considerations.- Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm.- Thoracic Aortic Dissection.- Coronary Artery Disease.- SECTION III: Abdomen.- Conventional Radiography.- What to Look For.- Normal Bowel Gas Pattern.- Normal Fluid Levels.- Differentiating Large from Small Bowel.- Acute Abdominal Series: the Views and What They Show.- Calcifications.- Organomegaly.- Abdominal CT: General Considerations.- Abnormal Gas Patterns.- Laws of the Gut.- Functional Ileus: Localized Sentinel Loops.- Functional Ileus: Generalized Adynamic Ileus.- Mechanical Obstruction: Small Bowel Obstruction.- Mechanical Obstruction: Large Bowel Obstruction (LBO).- Volvulus of the Colon.- Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie Syndrome).- Signs of Free Intraperitoneal Air.- Air Beneath the Diaphragm.- Visualization of Both Sides of the Bowel Wall.- Visualization of the Falciform Ligament.- Causes of Free Air.- Signs of Extra-peritoneal Air (Retroperitoneal Air).- Causes of Extra-peritoneal Air.- Signs of Air in the Bowel Wall.- Causes and Significance of Air in the Bowel Wall.- Signs of Air in the Biliary System.- Causes of Air in the Biliary System.- Stomach and Duodenum.- Duodenal Ulcer.- Small and Large Bowel.- Large Bowel.- Pancreas.- Hepatobiliary Abnormalities.- Space-Occupying Lesions of the Liver.- Biliary System.- Urinary Tract.- Pelvis.- Urinary Bladder.- Adenopathy.- SECTION IV: Calcifications.- Patterns of Calcification.- Rim-like Calcification.- Linear or Track-like Calcification.- Lamellar or Laminar Calcification.- Cloudlike, Amorphous, or Popcorn Calcification.- Location of Calcification.- SECTION V: Trauma.- Chest Trauma.- Rib Fractures.- Pulmonary Contusions.- Pulmonary Lacerations (Hematoma or Traumatic Pneumatocele).- Aortic Trauma.- Abdominal Trauma.- Pelvic Trauma.- SECTION VI: Musculoskeletal.- Abnormalities of Bone Density.- Normal Bone Anatomy.- The Effect of Bone Physiology on Bone Anatomy.- Generalized Increase in Bone Density.- Focal Increase in Bone Density.- Generalized Decrease in Bone Density.- Focal Decrease in Bone Density.- Pathologic Fractures.- Acute Fracture.- Dislocations and Subluxations.- How Fractures are Described—by the Number of Fracture Fragments.- How Fractures are Described—by the Direction of the Fracture Line.- How Fractures are Described—by the Relationship of One Fracture Fragment to Another.- How Fractures are Described—by the Relationship of the Fracture to the Atmosphere.- Avulsion Fractures.- Stress Fractures.- Common Fracture Eponyms.- Some Easily Missed Fractures or Dislocations.- Fracture Healing.- Anatomy of a Joint.- Classification of Arthritis.- Hypertrophic Arthritis.- Erosive Arthritis.- Infectious Arthritis.- SECTION VII: Neuro.- The Normal Spine.- Back Pain.- Malignancy Involving the Spine.- MRI in Metastatic Spine Disease.- Spinal Trauma.- Normal Brain Anatomy.- MRI and the Brain.- Head Trauma.- Intracranial Hemorrhage.- Diffuse Axonal Injury.- Increased Intracranial Pressure.- Stroke.- Ruptured Aneurysms.- Hydrocephalus.- Cerebral Atrophy.- Brain Tumors.- Other Diseases.- Neuroimaging Terminology.- SECTION VIII: Pediatrics.- Newborn Respiratory Distress.- Childhood Lung Disease.- Soft Tissues of the Neck.- Ingested Foreign Bodies.- Other Diseases.- SECTION IX: Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.- How US Works.- Doppler Ultrasonography.- Adverse Effects or Safety Issues.- Medical Uses of Ultrasonography.- How Magnetic Resonance Imaging Works.- Hardware That Makes Up an MRI Scanner.- What Happens Once Scanning Begins.- How Can You Identify a T1-Weighted or T2-Weighted Image?.- MRI Contrast Agents: General Considerations.- MRI Safety Issues.- Diagnostic Applications of MRI 

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