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Security of Natural Gas Supply through Transit Countries
NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry
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Jens HETLAND & Teimuraz GOCHITASHVILI In contrast to oil, natural gas is usually routed through pipeline systems stretched from the wellhead to the end-user – although liquefied natural gas (LNG) is gaining increased interest; the commercialisation of natural gas fields is inherently linked to rigid transportation systems that require huge investments in tangible assets fixed to specific locations; the supply of natural gas is constrained by the transportation system, and requires access to appropriate infrastructure for transport and distribution; the trading of natural gas is traditionally associated with long-term contracts, albeit the duration per se of gas transport contracts appears to be less important after the deregulation of the energy markets. As diversification is strategically important to modern societies, the security of energy supplies becomes an inherent issue. In order to avoid situations of shortage, and to keep the price level stable, industrial nations are paying attention to the security of energy supplies. In brief terms this means that having more than one supplier of natural gas and more than one transport route would be strategically important. This also affects political issues and international law and regulations, economics, science and technology. The purpose of this book is to address opportunities extended from science and research pertaining to the exploitation and international trading of natural gas that involves transit countries. This especially relates to the transport and handling of gas from remote regions and pipelines that are
Preface. Introduction. I: Current Status of Producer Countries and Pre-determining for the Transit of Natural Gas. Prospects of the Caspian Natural Gas Supply to Europe and Probable Impact on the Energy Security of Transit Countries; T. Gochitashvili. Power System Situation Autumn-Winter 2002-2003 and Aspects of Energy Security in Georgia; J. Coker. Current Status of Natural Gas Sector - Investigation and Strategies for Security of Supplies in Azerbaijan; G. Abdullayev. Italian Experience Pertaining to Natural Gas in Transportation and Development: Rationale for the Italian Involvement in a Transit Country - Monitoring and Protection of Gasline. An Italian-Georgian Collaboration; M. Piccolo. II: Modern Technologies. State of the Art in Liquefaction Technologies for Natural Gas - How to Provide LNG that Fits to the Needs of Transit Countries; E. Brendeng, J. Hetland. On the Relevance of Integrating LNG with the Energy Supply Systems of Transit Countries - LNG Chains and Storage Facilities; E. Brendeng, J. Hetland. Russian Gas Supply and Some Prospects of Small-Scale LNG Units - Estimates in a Nutshell; V. Feygin, Y. Rykov. III: Strategic Reserves and Geological Survey. Up-to-Date Research and Future Trends in Underground Gas Storage Facilities: A State of the Art Review; F. Fabret. Underground Gas Storage in Georgia - Geological, Technical and Economic Aspects; M. Christensen, et al. Underground Gas Storage: Planning and Modeling with SimSim, a New Reservoir Engineering Software Tool; A. Giliz, F. Pach. Assessment Studies for Creation of Underground Gas Storage Facilities in Georgia; D. Rogava. Geotechnical Survey Optimisation for Pipeline Construction in High Mountainous Regions; O. Kutsnashvili, I. Kutsnashvili. IV: Economics, Legislative Aspects of Gas Transport and Geopolitics. Prospects for Gas Supply and Demand and their Implication with Reference to Transit Countries and their Policy; B. Nitzov. Impacts of the European Gas Directive on Gas Exporters - Recent Experiences with the New Norwegian Regulatory Regime for Accessing the Natural Gas Transportation System; H.J. Dahl, et al. The Impediments to Establish an Energy-Regime in Caucasus; G. Bacik, B. Aras. Some Aspects of Gas Supply Security of Georgia; L. Jervalidze. V: Other Aspects of Pipeline Transportation. Fossil Fuels Long Distance Pipeline Transport; P. Vlasac, et al. Logical Basis, Logistics and Architecture of Modular Systems - Technology for Natural Gas Supply Chains Design and Engineering; M. Kervalishvili, et al. Some Reliability Aspects Pertaining to Gas Main Pipelines; L. Makharadze, et al. VI: Recommendation and Conclusions. Co-directors' Summary of Conclusions and Policy Requirements. List of ARW Participants. Units and Abbreviations. Technical and Physical Units. Abbreviations. Index.
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