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Solar Neutrons and Related Phenomena
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Short Historical Overview In the 1940s, two phenomena in the ?eld of cosmic rays (CR) forced scientists to think that the Sun is a powerful source of high-energy particles. One of these was discovered because of the daily solar variation of CR, which the maximum number of CR observed near noon (referring to the existence of continuous ?ux of CR from the direction of the Sun); this became the experimental basis of the theory that CR’s ´ originate from the Sun (or, for that matter, from within the solar system) (Alfven 1954). The second phenomenon was discovered when large ?uxes of high energy particles were detected from several solar ?ares, or solar CR. These are the - called ground level events (GLE), and were ?rst observed by ionization chambers shielded by 10 cm Pb (and detected mainly from the secondary muon-component CR that they caused) during the events of the 28th of February 1942, the 7th of March 1942, the 25th of July 1946, and the 19th of November 1949. The biggest such event was detected on the 23rd of February 1956 (see the detailed description in Chapters X and XI of Dorman, M1957). The ?rst phenomenon was investigated in detail in Dorman (M1957), by ?rst correcting experimental data on muon temperature effects and then by using coupling functions to determine the change in particle energy caused by the solar-diurnal CR variation.
Preface.- Acknowledgements.- Frequently used Abbreviations and Notations.- Chapter 1. Charged, Accelerated Particle Interactions in the Solar Atmosphere, and the Generation of Secondary Energetic Particles and Radiations: Pioneer Results.- Chapter 2. The Events of August 1972 and the Discovery of Solar Gamma-Radiation.- Chapter 3. The Events of the June 1980 and June 1982, and the Discovery of Solar Neutrons.- Chapter 4. Space Probe Observations of Solar Neutron Events.- Chapter 5. Solar Neutron Propagation in the Earth's Atmosphere, and the Sensitivity of Neutron Monitors and other Ground Based Detectors to Solar Neutrons.- Chapter 6. Statistical Investigations of Solar Neutron Events on the Basis of Ground Observations.- Chapter 7. Observations of Solar Neutron Events by Neutron Monitors, Solar Neutron Telescopes and Muon Detectors, and their Interpretation.- Chapter 8. The Solar Neutron Decay Phenomenon.- Chapter 9. Gamma Rays from Solar Energetic Particle Interactions with the Sun's Atmosphere.- Chapter 10. Positron Generation in the Nuclear Interactions of Flare Energetic Particles in the Solar Atmosphere.- Chapter 11. The Development of Models and Simulations for Solar Neutron and Gamma Ray Events.- Appendix.- Conclusions and Problems.- General Conclusion.- Main Conclusions for Different Chapters.- Actual Problems for Solving in near Future.- References.- References for Monographs and Books.- Object Index.- Author Index.
From the reviews:“This book represents an exhausting monograph on solar neutrons written by an expert who worked about these particles from the Sun since 1965. … The table of contents is a very detailed one, it covers 24 printed pages. … Many observations are given in tables and figures, the corresponding theoretical developments are given in many formulas, and subject index and reference list are carefully developed.” (Hans-Jürgen Schmidt, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1196, 2010)
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